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托福写作考试常犯的十一个错误

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 1.不一致(Disagreements)所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致,它还包括了数的不一致时态不一致及代词不一致等。
  例1. When one have money ,he can do what he want to .
  (人一旦有了钱,他就能想干什么就干什么。)剖析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has ;同理,want应改为wants.本句是典型的主谓不一致。
  改为:Once one has money ,he can do what he wants (to do)
  2、 修饰语错位(Misplaced Modifiers)英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子不同的位置,句子的含义可能引起变化。对于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视,因而造成了 不必要的误解。例1. I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.
  剖析:better位置不当,应置于句末。
  3、 句子不完整(Sentence Fragments)在口语中,交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解。可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,笔者又想加些补充说明时发生。
  例1. There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .
  剖析:本句后半部分"for example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on ."不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句。
  改为:There are many ways to know society ,for example ,by TV ,radio ,and newspaper.
  4、 悬垂修饰语(Dangling Modifiers)所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清。例如:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 这句中"at the age of ten"只点出十岁时,但没有说明" 谁"十岁时。按一般推理不可能是my grandfather, 如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了。
  改为:
  When I was ten, my grandfather died.
  例1. To do well in college, good grades are essential.
  剖析:句中不定式短语 "to do well in college" 的逻辑主语不清楚。
  改为:
  To do well in college, a student needs good grades.
  5.词性误用(Misuse of Parts of Speech)"词性误用"常表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等。
  例1. None can negative the importance of money.
  剖析:negative 系形容词,误作动词。
  改为:
  None can deny the importance of money.
  6、指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。试看下面这一句:
  Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.
  (玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。)读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为:
  Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.
  例1. And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.
  剖析:句中人称代词we 和反身代词yourself指代不一致。改为:
  We can also know society by serving it ourselves.
  7、不间断句子(Run-on Sentences)什么叫run-on sentence?请看下面的例句。
  例1. There are many ways we get to know the outside world.
  剖析:这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:"There are many ways." 以及"We get to know the outside world.".简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。
  改为:
  There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:
  There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.


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